The Google Penguin algorithm is a search engine algorithm developed by Google to detect and penalize websites that engage in manipulative or spammy link building practices. It was first introduced in April 2012, and several updates have been made since then. The Penguin algorithm specifically targets websites that have unnatural, low-quality, or irrelevant links pointing to their site.
The primary goal of the Penguin algorithm is to ensure that websites with high-quality and authoritative content rank higher in search engine results, while sites engaging in spammy link building practices are demoted or even penalized, sometimes resulting in a significant drop in rankings. This algorithm update aimed to improve the overall quality of search results and prevent webmasters from artificially manipulating their website's ranking by acquiring a large number of low-quality backlinks.